This article is about phenomenology in philosophy. A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and perhaps even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus. In fact, it is not a doctrine, nor a philosophical school, but rather a style of thought, a method, an open and ever-renewed experience having different results, and this questions of perception phenomenology of architecture pdf download disorient anyone wishing to define the meaning of phenomenology.
Although phenomenology seeks to be scientific, it does not attempt to study consciousness from the perspective of clinical psychology or neurology. Instead, it seeks through systematic reflection to determine the essential properties and structures of experience. Phenomenologists reject the concept of objective research. They believe that analyzing daily human behavior can provide one with a greater understanding of nature. They assert that persons should be explored. This is because persons can be understood through the unique ways they reflect the society they live in. Phenomenologists prefer to gather “capta”, or conscious experience, rather than traditional data.
They consider phenomenology to be oriented toward discovery, and therefore they gather research using methods that are far less restrictive than in other sciences. As a philosophical perspective, phenomenology is its method, though the specific meaning of the term varies according to how it is conceived by a given philosopher. Husserl’s method entails the suspension of judgment while relying on the intuitive grasp of knowledge, free of presuppositions and intellectualizing. Sometimes depicted as the “science of experience,” the phenomenological method is rooted in intentionality, i. Intentionality represents an alternative to the representational theory of consciousness, which holds that reality cannot be grasped directly because it is available only through perceptions of reality that are representations of it in the mind. The radicality of the phenomenological method is both continuous and discontinuous with philosophy’s general effort to subject experience to fundamental, critical scrutiny: to take nothing for granted and to show the warranty for what we claim to know.
To “bracket” in this sense means to provisionally suspend or set aside some idea as a way to facilitate the inquiry by focusing only on its most significant components. The phenomenological method serves to momentarily erase the world of speculation by returning the subject to his or her primordial experience of the matter, whether the object of inquiry is a feeling, an idea, or a perception. According to Husserl the suspension of belief in what we ordinarily take for granted or infer by conjecture diminishes the power of what we customarily embrace as objective reality. Husserl’s conception of phenomenology because of what Heidegger perceived as Husserl’s subjectivist tendencies. From this angle, one’s state of mind is an “effect” rather than a determinant of existence, including those aspects of existence of which one is not conscious.
Heidegger altered the subsequent direction of phenomenology. Whereas Husserl gave priority to a depiction of consciousness that was fundamentally alien to the psychoanalytic conception of the unconscious, Heidegger offered a way to conceptualize experience that could accommodate those aspects of one’s existence that lie on the periphery of sentient awareness. Spirit that is behind phenomena. Brentano and mentor to Husserl, used “phenomenology” to refer to an ontology of sensory contents. He is considered to be the founder of contemporary phenomenology. Developed the basis for experimental phenomenology and neurophenomenology. Husserl’s introduction and use of the term.
The word itself should not be confused with the “ordinary” use of the word intentional, but should rather be taken as playing on the etymological roots of the word. Intentionality is often summed up as “aboutness. Consequently, these “structures” of consciousness, i. Brentano who in turn influenced Husserl’s conception of phenomenology, who refined the term and made it the cornerstone of his theory of consciousness. The meaning of the term is complex and depends entirely on how it is conceived by a given philosopher.
The term should not be confused with “intention” or the psychoanalytic conception of unconscious “motive” or “gain”. The same goes for the apprehension of mathematical formulae or a number. State A is evidence for the proposition “A is true. In phenomenology, however, the concept of evidence is meant to signify the “subjective achievement of truth. Evidence is the successful presentation of an intelligible object, the successful presentation of something whose truth becomes manifest in the evidencing itself.