Mining, processing and waste disposal require land to be withdrawn from environmental technology in the oil industry pdf uses, and therefore should avoid high density population areas. Oil shale mining reduces the original ecosystem diversity with habitats supporting a variety of plants and animals. After mining the land has to be reclaimed.
However, this process takes time and cannot necessarily re-establish the original biodiversity. The impact of sub-surface mining on the surroundings will be less than for open pit mines. However, sub-surface mining may also cause subsidence of the surface due to the collapse of mined-out area and abandoned stone drifts. According to the study of the European Academies Science Advisory Council, after processing, the waste material occupies a greater volume than the material extracted, and therefore cannot be wholly disposed underground. 80 million tonnes is a semi-coke, and 200 million tonnes are combustion ashes.
Mining influences the water runoff pattern of the area affected. In Estonia, for each cubic meter of oil shale mined, 25 cubic meters of water must be pumped from the mine area. At the same time, the thermal processing of oil shale needs water for quenching hot products and the control of dust. Depending on technology, above-ground retorting uses between one and five barrels of water per barrel of produced shale oil. Water represents the major vector of transfer of oil shale industry pollutants.
One environmental issue is to prevent noxious materials leaching from spent shale into the water supply. There are possible links from being in an oil shale area to a higher risk of asthma and lung cancer than other areas. Emissions arise from several sources. However, after the removal of the freeze wall these methods can still cause groundwater contamination as the hydraulic conductivity of the remaining shale increases allowing groundwater to flow through and leach salts from the newly toxic aquifer. Unconventional Oil and Gas Production. A study on the EU oil shale industry viewed in the light of the Estonian experience. Global oil shale issues and perspectives.
Synthesis of the Symposium on Oil Shale. Oil Shale Development in the United States. Effects of Oil Shale Technologies”. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences Publishers. This page was last edited on 21 September 2017, at 19:29. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Petroleum distillates can create a sheen on the surface of water as a thin layer creating an optical phenomenon called interphase. This means that incompletely burned compounds are created in addition to just water and carbon dioxide. The other compounds are often toxic to life. Acid rain causes many problems such as dead trees and acidified lakes with dead fish. Spills may take weeks, months or even years to clean up. VOCs from petroleum are toxic and foul the air, and some like benzene are extremely toxic, carcinogenic and cause DNA damage. Benzene is present in automobile exhaust.
More important for vapors from spills of diesel and crude oil are aliphatic, volatile compounds. Although “less toxic” than compounds like benzene, their overwhelming abundance can still cause health concerns even when benzene levels in the air are relatively low. Waste oil is oil containing not only breakdown products but also impurities from use. Many of the same problems associated with natural petroleum exist with waste oil. This poisons both soil and drinking water.