Biological control of mosquitoes pdf

Mosquitoes are generally considered annoying and may also transmit diseases, thus biological control of mosquitoes pdf to a variety of human efforts to eradicate or reduce their presence. Adult mosquito populations may be monitored by landing rate counts, or by mechanical traps.

For landing rate counts, an inspector visits a set number of sites every day, counting the number of adult female mosquitoes that land on a part of the body, such as an arm or both legs, within a given time interval. Mechanical traps use a fan to blow adult mosquitoes into a collection bag that is taken back to the laboratory for analysis of catch. These cues are often used in combination. This is something that homeowners can accomplish.

Eliminating such mosquito breeding areas can be an extremely effective and permanent way to reduce mosquito populations without resorting to insecticides. The network of ditches drains the mosquito habitat and lets in fish which will feed on mosquito larvae. Simply giving the predators access to the mosquito larvae can result in long-term mosquito control. Open-water marsh management is used on both the eastern and western coasts of the United States. RIM allows mosquito control to occur while still permitting the marsh to function in a state as close to its natural condition as possible. Water is pumped into the marsh in the late spring and summer to prevent the female mosquito from laying her eggs on the soil.

The marsh is allowed to drain in the fall, winter, and early spring. Gates in the culverts are used to permit fish, crustaceans, and other marsh organisms to enter and exit the marsh. RIM allows the mosquito-control goals to be met while at the same time reducing the need for pesticide use within the marsh. Rotational impoundment management is used to a great extent on the east coast of Florida. Biological control or “biocontrol” is the use of natural enemies to manage mosquito populations. There are several types of biological control including the direct introduction of parasites, pathogens and predators to target mosquitoes. Direct introduction of tilapia and mosquitofish into ecosystems around the world have had disastrous consequences.

Predators such as birds, bats, lizards and frogs, have been used, but their effectiveness is only anecdotal. Like all animals, mosquitoes are subject to disease. Invertebrate pathologists study these diseases in the hope that some of them can be utilized for mosquito management. Microbial pathogens of mosquitoes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microsporidia.

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